Cursul English for Students in Law este destinat studenţilor Facultăţii de Ştiinţe Economice şi Drept a Universităţii din Piteşti, Departamentul Drept, Programul de studiu Drept.

        Cursul English for Students in Law este destinat disciplinelor   Limba engleză III şi IV, care sunt optională şi, respectiv, liber aleasă, şi se studiază in anul al doilea, semestrele I si II. Studenţii au două ore de seminar pe săptămână, evaluarea  este de tip Verificare şi li acordă 2 puncte de credit.

         Obiectivul general al disciplinei:

         Prin nivelul de limbă dobândit la finalul cursului, studentul poate să înţeleagă ideile principale din texte complexe pe teme concrete şi abstracte, inclusiv în discuţii specifice  specializarii sale. Poate să comunice cu un anumit grad de spontaneitate şi de fluenţă cu un vorbitor nativ. Poate să acţioneze şi să execute sarcini profesionale, în mediul din specialitatea sa, pe baza comunicării lingvistice. Poate să utilizeze limba cu eficacitate în viaţa socială, profesională sau academică.

          Obiectivele specifice al disciplinei:

-          Dezvoltarea şi consolidarea unui vocabular juridic prin abordarea unor texte specializate;

-          Dezvoltarea şi consolidarea mecanismelor gramaticale specifice textelor juridice ;

-          Sistematizarea cunoştinţelor teoretice şi practice în scopul decodării unui text de specialitate;

-          Familiarizarea studenţilor cu elemente lingvistice intratextuale caracteristice complexităţii discursului juridic, a structurilor semantice şi funcţiilor categoriilor de texte amintite;

- Dezvoltarea capacităţii de identificare a termenilor şi structurilor care trimit spre concepte particulare ale domeniului, al căror ancodaj / decodaj contextualizat impune consultarea specialistului din domeniul juridic.

          Compeţentele constau în utilizarea eficienta a resurselor de comunicare si a surselor de informare si de formare profesionala asistata, atât în limba româna, cât si într-o limba straina de circulatie internatională.

        Criteriile de evaluare constau in: activitate la seminar, evaluare periodică, teme de casă, iar metodele de evaluare: Raspunsuri la seminar – 30%; Test scris – 30%; Prezentare referate – 30%; Verificare 10%.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CONTENTS

 

1.

MAGISTRATES IN THE UNITED KINGDOM

GRAMMAR: SEQUENCE OF TENSES …………..

 

2.

POLICE POWERS

GRAMMAR: MODAL VERBS I …………………..

 

3.

TRIBUNALS

PASSIVE VOICE …………………………………..

 

4.

COMMON LAW

GRAMMAR: MODAL VERBS II …………………

 

5.

EQUITY

GRAMMAR: REPORTED SPEECH ………………

 

6.

THE SOURCES OF THE ENGLISH LAW

GRAMMAR: CONDITIONALS …………………

 

7.

THE BRITISH CONSTITUTION

GRAMMAR: UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS …………

 

8.

THE ACTORS OF THE CONSTITUTION

GRAMMAR: RELATIVE PRONOUNS …………

 

9.

LEGAL PROFESSIONS

GRAMMAR: DETERMINERS …………………….

 

10.

EUROPEAN LAW

GRAMMAR: GERUNND OR INFINITIVE? ……

 

11.

JUDICIAL POWER IN THE UNITED STATES

GRAMMAR: IRREGULAR COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES …………………………………….

 

12.

LITIGATIONS AND ADJUSTMENT

GRAMMAR: EXPRESSING FUTURE ………….

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

UNIT 1

 

MAGISTRATES IN THE UNITED KINGDOM

 

In England and Wales there are two types of magistrates: lay magistrates1 known as lay justices, who have the title of  “justice of the peace”, and stipendiary  magistrates2. The former is a body of men and women which has been in existence since the fourteenth century and is called on to pass judgment on their fellow citizens, without any real legal training. The latter is a body of lawyers, called upon3 to do substantially the same job, which dates from the eighteenth century. They both exercise their powers in a less formal court than the other courts, known as Magistrates’ Courts, and deal with more cases than any other English court of law.

The main job of the magistrates is to deal with4 civil and criminal cases which are too trivial to be tried by the Crown and County Courts. The courts consist of two to seven unpaid lay magistrates, but in some cities professional magistrates may sit alone. The Magistrates’ Courts of civil jurisdiction have limited civil jurisdiction, mainly related to domestic proceedings5.

In terms of their criminal jurisdiction the Magistrates’ Courts deal with something over 95% of all cases. The English legal system divides criminal offences into three categories:

- “summary offences”6 is the category of minor crimes such as minor assaults, begging, parking offences and less minor crimes such as drinking and driving which are tried without a jury;

- “indictable offences”7 are more serious offences for which the police are given a power of arrest and which will be tried by jury; murder, manslaughter8 and serious fraud – all come within this category;

- a number of offences called “either way” offences which may or may not be tried by a jury at the request of the defendant. The best example is theft9 which may involve either very small or very large amounts of money.

The magistrate’s criminal jurisdiction is mainly limited to summary and either way offences (where the defendant may elect not to have a jury trial). Anyway, magistrates have an important role to play in serious criminal proceedings. When a person is charged with are indictable offence, magistrates sit as examining justices to decide whether the prosecution’s case is strong enough to warrant10 committing the accused for trial in the Crown Court. The procedure is known as “committal proceedings”. They also issue arrest and search warrants to the police.

The civil jurisdiction of the magistrate is limited to minor matters including matrimonial and family matters and the granting of licenses.

Justices of the peace are chosen by the Lord Chancellor on the advice of Advisory Boards, that are concerned with recruiting magistrates from amongst the “worthy” members. Many justices of the peace are chosen on the recommendation of an existing magistrate. It seems that others are chosen for their background in voluntary work such as in churches or youth organizations. They are not paid a salary but receive expenses incurred11 in the performance of their judicial duties. They are assisted by “clerks to the justices”, solicitors or barristers of at least seven years’ standing, who perform the administrative work of the court.

Stipendiary magistrates are to be found in most of the large towns and cities of England and Wales. They are full-time members of the Court chosen by the Queen on the advice of the Lord Chancellor. They receive wages or a “stipend”12 and unlike lay magistrates they may sit alone.

 

 

 

VOCABULARY

 

1) lay magistrate = magistrat nesalariat

2) stipendiary magistrate = magistrat salariat

3) to call upon = a chema, a mobiliza

4) to deal with = a se ocupa de, a trata despre

5) domestic proceedings = procedură legată de juris-dicţia internă

6) summary offence = infracţiune judecată în faţa Curţii Magistraţilor

7) indictable offence = infracţiune gravă judecată la “Crown Court” cu juraţii

8) manslaughter = omucidere involuntară

9) theft = furt

10) to warrant = a autoriza, a mandata

11) to incur = a suporta, a asuma

 

COMPREHENSION CHECK

 

I.                    Answer the following questions:

 

a) How many types of magistrates are there in England and Wales?

b) What do you mean by “lay magistrates”? What about “stipendiary”?

c) Which is the main job of the magistrates?

d) What sort of offences do they deal with?

e) What does the magistrate’s criminal jurisdiction consist in?

f) What is the civil jurisdiction of the magistrate limited to?

g) Who are the “justices of the peace”?

h) Do magistrates play any role in indictable offences?

 

II. Give the Romanian equivalents of the following English terms for different types of crimes:

 

  • drunken driving
  • kidnapping
  • indecency
  • assault
  • arson
  • theft
  • bribery and corruption
  • armed robbery
  • rape
  • parking offence

 

III. Match each of the terms on the left with the correct explanation on the right:

 

·         attempt

 

·         arson

 

 

 

·         burglary

 

 

 

 

·         assault

 

 

·         criminal damage

 

·         bribery

 

 

 

·         extortion

 

 

 

 

 

·         fraud offence

1) any physical attack on the person of another

2) entry into any secured, dwelling house, building, warehouse, or any other secured structure for the purpose of committing a crime

3) any offence involving the obtaining of something of value using false statements, false documents, counterfeit currency, or representing oneself as an official person.

4) an action taken to commit the criminal act intended without success or completion

5) the deliberate destruction or damage of another’s property by fire; this may include public property

6) the use of force, fear or threat to induce another to perform an action, not perform an action, or to acquire a thing of value from another.

7) offering, giving or causing to be offered or given to any official person acting in an official capacity anything of value with the intention to alter or influence the person’s decisions or actions.

8) the deliberate destruction or damage of another’s property, not by fire.

 

IV. Fill in the blanks with the missing words:

 

A _______ magistrate, otherwise known as a _______ of the _______ deals with _______ and criminal cases that are not serious enough to go as far as the Crown or County Courts. Unlike ______ magistrates, who receive a _______ and are allowed to sit ______, they can claim only _______ that arise in the course of their _______ duties. Magistrates handle all ______ offences as well as some “_______” offences, where the defendant prefers a ______ without ______ . They also decide which cases should be referred to the higher _____, during what is termed _________ proceedings.

 

V. Translate into Romanian:

 

 The law of criminal procedure regulates the modes of apprehending, charging and trying suspected offenders; the imposition of penalties on convicted offenders; and the methods of challenging the legality of conviction after judgment is entered. Litigation in this area frequently deals with conflicts of fundamental importance for the allocation of power between the state and its citizens

When a criminal offence has been reported, the competent authority commences the criminal process by investigating the circumstances. In this phase, relevant evidence is collected and preserved for a possible trial. The suspect also has the right to collect evidence in this favour.

 

VI. Translate into English:

 

Nu există nici o diferenţă de domeniu, natură şi scop între regula morală şi cea juridică. Regula morală pătrunde în drept prin intermediul concepţiilor etice ale legiuitorului sau judecătorului sau, în cel mai bun caz, rătăceşte la frontierele dreptului pentru a pătrunde atunci când se iveşte prilejul.

Obligaţiile morale legiferate sunt: responsabilitatea civilă, interzicerea îmbogăţirii fără justă cauză, executarea contractelor, exercitarea neabuzivă a drepturilor conferite de lege. Când legea nu mai e conformă cu principiile morale va cădea în desuetudine.

 

VII. Discussion:

 

·   What are the major differences between this system and that of your country with regard, for example, to the handling of criminal cases at first instance?

 

FOCUS ON GRAMMAR

 

SEQUENCE OF TENSES

 

  • In English, the tense of the verb in the subordinate clause is determined by the tense of the verb in the main clause;
  • The dependent verb shows time in relation to the main verb. This phenomenon is known as SEQUENCE OF TENSES

 

TIME RELATION

TENSE IN THE MAIN CLAUSE

TENSE IN THE DIRECT OBJECT CLAUSE

AT THE SAME TIME

PRESENT TENSE

He says

 

PAST TENSE

John knew

PRESENT TENSE

he doesn’t know the truth

PAST TENSE

everything was all right

EARLIER

PRESENT TENSE

I know

 

 

PRESENT TENSE

The students don’t remember

PAST TENSE

They didn’t remember

PRESENT PERFECT

you have done your lessons.

PAST TENSE

what I taught them last week.

PAST PERFECT

what I had taught  them the week before.

 

LATER

PRESENT TENSE

She hopes

 

PAST TENSE

She hoped

FUTURE TENSE

he will come soon.

FUTURE IN THE PAST

he would change the subject.

 

            I. Change the main verb in each sentence to the SIMPLE PAST. Then change the verb in the subordinate clause according to its time relation to the main verb.

 

a) Mr. Barton claims that he has spoken to those people.

b) We know they are tired.

c) Bill thinks his brother needs your help.

d) I suppose Michael will finish the work next week.

e) Edward thinks he won the first prize in the competition.

f) We assume the meeting will be over around six o’clock.

g) I remember that the wind blew very hard the week before last.

h) She hears that Professor Johnson is writing another book.

i) We guess our friends haven’t heard the good news yet.

j) The message indicates Dr. Evans will be back from Bucharest next Saturday.

 

II. Use past forms for these auxiliaries after a main verb in the past:

 

For CAN, use COULD

For MAY, use MIGHT

For MUST, use MUST OR HAD TO

For SHALL, WILL, use WOULD

 

1. Richard regretted that he ________ (not) go with us.

2. We are sure that Tom _______ help us with the homework.

3. I regret that we ________ leave now.

4. Kate thought she __________ find someone to explain everything to us.

5. They didn’t know that we ________ leave at once.

6. Our friend had to promise Mike that we ________ help him.

7. We regret that we ________ stay only fifteen minutes longer.

8. Daniel said he ________ send the parcel the next day.

 

 

 

III. Put the verbs in brackets into the right tense:

 

1) Yesterday grandpa ………… (take) a nap from 2.00 to 3.00. I ……….. (get) home at 2.30. When I ……….. (come) in, grandpa …………. (sleep).

2) Tom: I ……. (be) in your native town last month. It ……… (look) like a nice town. I ………… (never, be) there before.

Ann: What ……….. (you, do) in that part of the country?

Tom: My sister and I ……….. (drive) to Braşov to see our grandparents

3) Laura ……….. (start) to read a novel by Mihail Sadoveanu. She ……… (not, finish) reading it yet. She ……… (read) it because her Romanian teacher …………. (ask) her to.

4) The weather ……….. (be) terrible lately. It ……….. (rain) off and on for two days and the temperature ……….. (drop) at least twenty degrees. Just three days ago the sun …………. (shine) and the weather ………….. (be) pleasant. The weather certainly ………….. (change) quickly here. When I ………….. (wake) up tomorrow morning, maybe it ………… (snow).

5) Last night I ………….. (go) to a party. When I …… (get) there, the room ………. (be) full of people. Some of them ………. (dance) and other …………. (talk). One young woman ……… (stand) by herself. I ……….. (never, meet) her, so I ………….. (introduce) myself to her.

 

IV. Translate into English

 

a)  Zburam de treizeci de minute când mi-am dat seama că am plecat de acasă fără să închid ferestrele.

b) Toţi s-au dus să vadă filmul de îndată ce profesorul le-a povestit romanul.

c) N-am putut face excursia deoarece ploua de trei de zile.

d) Când am ajuns la cinema, filmul începuse de mult.

e) Vânzătorul plecase deja acasă când am ajuns noi la magazin.

f) Ne plimbăm de o jumătate de oră când ne-am întâlnit cu Frank.

g) Mă dusesem deja la culcare când mi-am adus aminte că nu am încuiat uşa.

h) Te vom aştepta în faţa teatrului când se va termina piesa.

i) Când Mary va absolvi facultatea, va fi studiat aici patru ani.

j) Sandra spera că se va putea duce la plimbare cu Michael dacă îşi va termina lucrarea.

k) Ce-ai mai făcut de când nu ne-am mai văzut?

l) Nici nu terminase de gătit că a şi sosit soţul ei.

m) Se gândea că dacă pleacă imediat o să ajungă acasă înainte de miezul nopţii.

n) Soarele a răsărit, dar bate un vânt rece.

 

 

 

 

 

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

 

 

  1. Allsop, Jake, Test your Phrasal Verbs, Penguin Group, 1990;
  2. Bantaş, Andrei,  Năstăsescu Violeta, Dicţionar economic, Editura Niculescu, Bucureşti, 2000;
  3. Beizdadea, Coziana Marin a, English for Law, Editura Lumina Lex, Bucureşti, 2001.
  4. Brookes, Michael, Holden, David, Hutchinson, Wesley, Engleza pentru jurişti, Editura Teora, 2001.
  5. Chiţoran, D,  Panovf, I,  Poenaru, I,  Exerciţii de gramatică engleză, Editura Teora, 1995;
  6. Cobb, Timothy, Gardiner, Richard, Today’s English Grammar, Editura Prietenii Cărţii, Bucureşti, 1994;
  7. Emmerson, Paul, Business Grammar Builder, Macmillan Publishers, Oxford, 2002.
  8. Gălăţeanu-Fârnoagă, Georgiana, Comişel, Ecaterina, Gramatica limbii engleze, Editura Omega Pres, Bucureşti, 1995.
  9. Gălăţeanu-Fârnoagă, Georgiana, Sinteze de gramatică engleză, Editura Albatros, 1987;
  10. Iarovici, Edith, Mareş, Liliana, Lecţii de limba engleză pentru nivel avansat şi mediu, Editura Teora, 1993;
  11. Ionescu, Lucian, Toader, Flavia,  English for Banking, Editura Economică, Bucureşti, 1999;
  12. Jan Bell, Roger Gower, Matters, Longman, 1999;
  13. Lefter, Virgil, Dicţionar de proverbe roman-englez, Editura Ştiinţifică şi Enciclopedică, Bucureşti, 1978.
  14. Marcheteau, M, Berman, J.P.,  Savio, M., Daube J.P., Delbond, O., Demazet, B. Engleza pentru economie – Business & Economics, Editura Teora, 2000;
  15. Mincă, Nicoleta, Ionică, Laura, A Practical Course in Economics, Editura The Flower Power, Piteşti, 2003.
  16. Mincă, Nicoleta,  English for Business, Editura Universităţii din Piteşti, 2004.
  17. Oprescu, Simona, Limba engleză pentru studenţii facultăţilor de drept şi pentru jurişti, Editura Oscar Print, Bucureşti, 2000.
  18. Panovf, Irina, Exerciţii de gramatică engleză, Editura Lucman, Bucureşti, 2002.
  19. Pawlowska, Barbara, Kempinski, Zbigniew, Teste de limba engleză, Editura Teora, Bucureşti, 2004.
  20. Swan Michael, Practical English Usage, Oxford University Press, 1995;
  21. Ştefan, Rodica, Vasilescu, Ruxandra, Macoci, Sanda, Beldea Elena,  Come Along – curs practic de limba engleză, Editura Fundaţia “România De Mâine”, Bucureşti, 2000; 
  22. Ştefan, Rodica, Pricope, Mihaela, Beldea, Elena, Go Ahead-English Course for Business Studies, Editura Fundaţiei “Romînia de Mâine”, Bucureşti, 2001.
  23. Thomson, J.A., Martinet, A.V., A Practical English Grammar,  Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1980;
  24. Watchyn-Jones, Peter, Test your English Idioms, Penguin Group, 1990;
  25. * * *  Dictionary of Contemporary English, Longman, 1995;
  26. * * * The New International Webster’s Comprehensive Dictionary of The English Language, Trident Press International, 1996.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


        Cursul English for Business este destinat studenţilor Facultăţii de Ştiinţe Economice şi Drept a Universităţii din Piteşti, Departamentul Finanţe, Contabilitate si Economie Finanţe şi Bănci, Programul de Studiu Finanţe şi Bănci.

        Cursul English for Business este destinat disciplinei   Limba engleză economică şi de afaceri, care este obligatorie, şi se studiază in anul al doiea, semestrul I. Studenţii au două ore de seminar pe săptămână, evaluarea  este de tip Verificare şi li acordă 2 puncte de credit.

        Obiectivul general al disciplinei este ca studenţii  să dobândească competenţa necesară pentru a comunica, oral sau în scris, în contexte profesionale sau socioculturale diverse, prin mesaje cu grad de complexitate mediu.

         Obiectivele specifice ale disciplinei sunt ca studenţii:

- Să-şi dezvolte strategii de învăţare individuale în vederea ameliorării propriei competenţe lingvistice, inclusiv plurilingvă, în functie de nevoile specifice, prin munca în echipă sau în autonomie;

-  Să-şi identifice şi să utilizeze instrumentele lingvistice esenţiale profesiei pentru care se pregătesc prin programul de studii urmat;

-  Să-şi aprofundeze noţiunile fundamentale despre civilizaţia britanică şi europeană

- Să conştientizeze aspectul diferenţelor culturale reflectate în limbă şi a impactului acestora în interacţiunile profesionale.

         Competenţele specifice profesionale vizate sunt:

Prin nivelul de limbă dobândit la finalul cursului, studentul poate să înţeleagă ideile principale din texte complexe pe teme concrete şi abstracte, inclusiv în discuţii tehnice din specialitatea sa. Poate să comunice cu un anumit grad de spontaneitate şi de fluenţă cu un vorbitor nativ. Poate să acţioneze şi să execute sarcini profesionale, în mediul din specialitatea sa, pe baza comunicării lingvistice. Poate să utilizeze limba cu eficacitate în viaţa socială, profesională sau academică.

         Competenţele specifice transversale vizate sunt: Gestionarea optimă a sarcinilor profesionale şi deprinderea executării lor la termen, în mod riguros, eficient şi responsabil; Respectarea normelor de etica specifice domeniului (ex: confidenţialitate); Aplicarea tehnicilor de relaţionare în echipă; dezvoltarea capacităţilor empatice de comunicare interpersonală şi de asumare de roluri specifice în cadrul muncii în echipă având drept scop eficientizarea activităţii grupului şi economisirea resurselor, inclusiv a celor umane; Identificarea şi utilizarea unor metode şi tehnici eficiente de învăţare; conştientizarea motivaţiilor extrinseci şi intrinseci ale învăţării continue.

        Criteriile de evaluare constau  din: activitate la seminar, evaluare periodică, teme de casă, iar metodele de evaluare: Raspunsuri la seminar – 30%; Test scris – 30%; Prezentare referate – 30%; Verificare 10%.

         Conţinutul disciplinei este în concordanţă cu programele analitice din alte centre universitare din ţară, deoarece cadrele didactice care predau disciplina Limba engleză se întâlnesc anual pentru dezbateri privind noutăţile din domeniu care să fie introduse în conţinutul disciplinei.Competenţele care vor fi obţinute de către studenţi prin studiile de caz de la seminarii pot să răspundă aşteptărilor mediului de afaceri care doreşte absolvenţi cu o capacitate dezvoltată de analiză.

 

 

 

 

 

CONTENTS

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.      Banking………………………………………..

2.      Means of Payment …………………………….

3.      On Partnerships ……………………………….

4.      The Globalization of Financial Markets ……..

5.      New Economic Sectors ……………………….

6.      Economics, Jobs and Social Benefits …………

7.      Accounting ……………………………………

8.      Transportation ………………………………...

9.      Export-Import …………………………………

10.  How to Encourage Corporations to Behave ….

11.  Major Trading Blocs Today ………………….

12.  Industrial Relations and Human Resources ….

13.  Currencies …………………………………….

14.  List of Irregular Verbs ………………………..

15.  Bibliography ………………………………….

5

15

26

36

47

59

70

82

93

104

115

127

137

139

143

 

 

UNIT 1

 

BANKING

 

            Banks can be roughly divided in accordance with the type of customers they cater for1. Commercial banks, also called high-street banks, are those which develop services to the general public, such as the use of a cheque book, the provision of credit…

            They are privately-owned profit-seeking institutions. They accept funds from customers, have extensive branch networks and are major participants in the clearing2 system (setting of debts between banks). They inject large amounts of money through the economy through cheques, payments made by direct debit, standing order3 or credit cards. When a cheque is made out, the payee4 sends or takes it to his bank which credits the amount to his account and sends the cheque to be presented to the drawer5’s bank through the clearing system. The clearing system is operated by the Clearing House in London; it adds up the total amount each bank owes to each other bank and reconciles6 the difference in the banks’ accounts with the Bank of England. The cheque is then sent to the drawer’s bank which debits the drawer’s account. Sometimes the drawer’s bank may decide not to honour a cheque – if there is not enough money in the drawer’s account or the cheque is incorrectly written.

            Other ways of paying include plastic money, i. e. all types of plastic cards used instead of cash. A typical bank card can do three things: it can guarantee a cheque, it can obtain cash from Automatic Teller Machines (ATMs) and it can pay for goods by electronic funds transfer at point of sale (EFTPOS). A fourth use for plastic cards is to give customers credit when they  purchase7 goods or services.

Apart from offering their customers means of payment, commercial banks also lend them money. In some countries, some banks specialize in providing loans geared8 to a specific public. Among them are building societies9 and Saving and Loans10 (UK), which gather the savings of millions of short-term savers and then lend them to home buyers. In the U. K. for instance, building societies account for most of the mortgage loans taken out for house purchase, while in other countries, commercial banks provide the same service.

A Central Bank.

Is the only bank to be allowed to issue banknotes. It is a “Bankers’ bank” and the Government’s banker: when short of money, the government may borrow from the bank. It is also in charge of the keeping of the country’s gold reserves and it regulates the flow of capital into and out of the country.

Commercial banks or retail banks.

Fill the short-term needs of companies and individuals. They provide small businesses with loans, consumer and installment11 credit, mortgage loans and other kinds of services.

Investment banks (U. S.) or Merchant banks (U. K.).

They are concerned with sophisticated, often innovative transactions that involve large corporate customers. They provide corporate finance  services to companies: mergers and  acquisitions12, floatations13 on the Stock Exchange, medium-term loans, export finance, leasing14 etc.

Saving banks.

These banks receive savings accounts and pay interest to the depositors. The rates of  interest vary in relation to the length of the notice of withdrawal. Term deposits for which the notice of withdrawal required is longer, have higher rates of interest.

Building Societies (U. K.).

Obtain funds from private investors by issuing shares and taking deposits, and lend money for house purchase (or the purchase of commercial premises15).

Savings and Loan Associations (U. S.).

Cooperative associations formed under federal or state law in the U. S., that solicit savings in the form of shares, invest their funds in mortgages and permit deposits in and withdrawals from shareholders’ accounts similar to those allowed for savings accounts in banks.

Hybrid Financial Institutions.

Are created as subsidiaries of large companies which manufacture and sell heavy machinery, farm equipment and automobiles. A customer that wishes to purchase goods from such a manufacturer may arrange financing directly with the finance company or credit corp, instead of with a bank.

Credit Unions.

These are associations formed by trade groups which manage and invest large pools of capital contributed by its members. People belonging to a credit union may also save there for their retirement and take out loans at competitive interest rates. 

 

BUILDING YOUR VOCABULARY

 

            I. Match the following terms with the definitions below:

 

a)      Automatic Teller Machine                       

b)      certificate of deposit

c)      interest

d)      clearing

e)      current account

f)        installment

g)      savings account

h)      security

i)        base rate

j)        loan sharking

 

1) Lending money at extortionate interest rates.

2) Money paid in regular amounts at regular intervals, for instance when paying back a loan .

3) An asset given by a borrower to a bank against a loan, credit or an overdraft.

4) A type of bank account the general public is most familiar with as its aim is to serve customers’ needs for their day-to-day operations.

5) Debt instrument issued by banks that usually pays interests. Maturities range from a few weeks to several years.

6) A method adopted by banks to settle their mutual indebtedness by exchanging cheques and bills held by each against the others before settling the cash balance.

7) Cash dispenser that has replaced tellers in banks and are to be found in most busy streets and shopping areas.

8) Prime lending rate or best rate at which bankers agree to lend money for top borrowers. It sets the annual interest rate and serves as a reference for the credit terms granted by banks.

9) A bank account which the account holder pays money not to be spend for some time and which earns more interest than an ordinary account.

10) Payment made by a borrower for the use of money lent to him by a bank or financial institution, calculated as a percentage of the capital borrowed.

 

II. Explain the meaning of the following words and phrases: to ask for security; bill of exchange; to charge interest; clearing house; credit facilities; to deposit money with a bank; to draw a bill; to discount a bill; to grant a loan; fund-raising; loan on mortgage.

 

COMPREHENSION CHECK

 

I.                   Translate into English:

 

1)  Puteţi plăti prin cec, ordin de plată sau cashiers check. Această plată trebuie să fie trasă asupra unei bănci din Statele Unite.

2) Suntem gata să acordăm un împrumut, cu condiţia să fie garantat.

3) Noi oferim credite clienţilor noştri şi le acordăm condiţii avantajoase de rambursare.

4) Care este cursul de schimb al zilei pentru liră în raport cu dolarul S. U. A.?

5) Ei nu au întocmit documente care să precizeze condiţiile împrumutului.

6) Cererea dumneavoastră de cumpărare a fost refuzată deoarece aţi depăşit limita creditului acordat.

7) Ca o garanţie vă vom oferi titluri de valoare.

8) Rata de bază este rata pe care băncile o aplică celor mai solvabili clienţi.

 

II. Multiple choice questionnaire:

 

1) I have been requested to …………. a deposit.

            a) leave                                    c) put

                        b) let                                        d) do.

            2) Your payment is ……………….. and your account is now in the red.

a) overtime                               c) overtaxed

                        b) overdue                                d) overcome.

3) The bank does not want to lend me any money. I shall have to go to the ………………

a) borrower                              c) pawnbroker’s

                        b) hireling                                 d) cash-register.

4) Counterfoil is a synonym for …………………

a) stub                                      c) coupon

                        b) ticket                                    d) draft.

            5) A bill of exchange is drawn up by ………………

a) the prayer                             c) the creditor

                        b) the debtor                            d) the drawee.

            6) When the acceptor stipulates some special condition, the acceptance of a bill is said to be ……………….

a) particular                              c) specialized

                        b) qualified                               d) peculiar.

            7) A hire purchase transaction involves payment by ……………………..

a) scattering                              c) settlements

                        b) installments                           d) periods.

            8) The contract provides for the ……………… to leave 10% of the loan on deposit.

a) lender                                   c) borrower

                        b) depositor                              d) creditor.

 

 

 

            III. Translate into Romanian:

 

            The U. S. banking system was eventually deregulated in the 80s; Automated Teller Machines could operate across states, a regional banking entity in New England was declared constitutional in 1983, which enable the creation of several regional banking groups, known today as “regionals” as opposed to the traditional commercial banks called money-center banks. But the 80s were also marked by a surge of indirect regulation because of the numerous scandals and failures affecting U. S. banking institutions at the time, notably among Savings and Loans (S & Ls) which are thrift institutions specialized in mortgage loans.

 

FOCUS ON GRAMMAR

 

MODAL VERBS

 

can

;

could

           

Ø      can expresses something possible:

Our factory can produce 800 cars a month.

Visas can be difficult to obtain sometimes

Ø      could expresses possibility (ability) in the past:

We could understand most of what he said.

I could speak French quite well when I was at school.

Ø      can not or could not express something impossible:

You can’t get to London on time, there is a strike.

You couldn’t go on trips abroad ten years ago.

Ø      could” + “have” + “past participle expresses unfilled opportunity:

I could have booked an earlier flight, but it left at 7 a. m.

Ø      couldn’t” + “have” + “past participle expresses a past impossibility:

He couldn’t have had any engine trouble.

 

            I. Fill in the banks with CAN(’T)/COULD(N’T) + the right infinitive form of the verb:

 

            1) I’m afraid I ……………. (help) you at the moment.

            2) The negotiations broke down because we ……….. (agree) on the price.

            3) Mother, you ……………… (cook) a better meal, everything is delicious.

            4) Don’t light a match in this chemical factory. It ……………… (cause) an explosion.

            5) He ……………… (hear) the news on the radio because be was sleeping then.

            6) No one ………………… (do) without water.

            7) He ……………… (solve) the first problem, but the second one was quite a puzzle to him.

            8) I’m sorry I ……………… (come) to your talk yesterday. I had to sort out a problem.

            9) He ……………… (ski) really well when he was in his twenties, but now be is out of practice.

            10) What ……………… (you, do) with the money if you hadn’t bought yourself a new watch?

 

            II. Rewrite the following sentences using “could” or “could not”:

 

            1) Ten years ago it wasn’t possible to have hard currency on you.

            2) She drove a car with the brakes out of order. An accident was possible.

            3) It was very difficult to buy a suitable office at a reasonable price, that is why we preferred to rent one.

            4) She was able to speak Spanish after only three months on the training course.

            5) From our hotel room, it was possible to see Mont Blanc.

            6) Although we tried hard, it was impossible for our company to get that contract signed.

            7) He didn’t manage to understand what she meant.

            8) It wasn’t possible for us to lock the door yesterday morning; we had lost our keys.

 

            III. Translate into English:

 

            1) Mi-a spus că s-ar putea să întârzie.

            2) Peter nu a putut să scrie eseul singur, aşa că a rugat-o pe sora lui să-l ajute.

            3) Nu te duce acum la ei, s-ar putea să fie la masă.

            4) Am văzut-o pe Sarah aseară la concert, dar nu m-a recunoscut. Nu se poate să fi fost Sarah, pentru că este în spital de două săptămâni.

            5) Presupun că aş putea să fac munca asta dacă ar fi necesar.

            6) Trebuie să pleci? Nu mai poţi să stai puţin?

            7) Din fericire, am putut să-mi fac mulţi prieteni de când am venit în acest oraş.

            8) E posibil să refuze să te ajute în astfel de împrejurări?

            9) Am putut ieşi în grădină după ce a stat ploaia.

            10) Sandra a spus că o să-şi poată găsi o casă dacă noi o s-o ajutăm.

 

 

 

 

 

 

VOCABULARY PRACTICE

 

            I. Say whether the idioms in the following sentences are used correctly (true) or incorrectly (false):

 

 

TRUE

FALSE

1. My cousin is very strong. He’s extremely tight-fisted.

[   ]

[   ]

2. The bank manager was arrested for cooking the books.

[   ]

[   ]

3. Men are not usually invited to a hen party.

[   ]

[   ]

4. To eavesdrop is to listen accidentally to a private conversation.

[   ]

[   ]

5. To grease someone’s palm means to tell his or her fortune.

[   ]

[   ]

6. A travelling salesman often has to live out of  a suitcase.

[   ]

[   ]

7. He can’t read music; he plays the piano by ear.

[   ]

[   ]

8. The pop concert was a disaster. It went like a bomb.

[   ]

[   ]

 

            II. Find the nouns corresponding to the following verbs, then use them in sentences of your own:

            disturb              suggest argue

            describe           choose             promise

            admire              understand        warn

            live                   ignore               attend

            permit               laugh

 

            III. Comment upon the proverbs:

 

            He that goes a borrowing, goes a sorrowing”.

            “No garden without its weeds”.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

 

 

 

 

  1. Allsop, Jake, Test your Phrasal Verbs, Penguin Group, 1990;
  2. Bantaş, Andrei,  Năstăsescu Violeta, Dicţionar economic, Editura Niculescu, Bucureşti, 2000;
  3. Chiţoran, D,  Panovf, I,  Poenaru, I,  Exerciţii de gramatică engleză, Editura Teora, 1995;
  4. Cobb, Timothy, Gardiner, Richard, Today’s English Grammar, Editura Prietenii Cărţii, Bucureşti, 1994;
  5. Emmerson, Paul, Business Grammar Builder, Macmillan Publishers, Oxford, 2002.
  6. Gălăţeanu-Fârnoagă, Georgiana, Sinteze de gramatică engleză, Editura Albatros, 1987;
  7. Iarovici, Edith, Mareş, Liliana, Lecţii de limba engleză pentru nivel avansat şi mediu, Editura Teora, 1993;
  8. Ionescu, Lucian, Toader, Flavia,  English for Banking, Editura Economică, Bucureşti, 1999;
  9. Jan Bell, Roger Gower, Matters, Longman, 1999;
  10. Lefter, Virgil, Dicţionar de proverbe roman-englez, Editura Ştiinţifică şi Enciclopedică, Bucureşti, 1978.
  11. Marcheteau, M, Berman, J.P.,  Savio, M., Daube J.P., Delbond, O., Demazet, B. Engleza pentru economie – Business & Economics, Editura Teora, 2000;
  12. Panovf, Irina, Exerciţii de gramatică engleză, Editura Lucman, Bucureşti, 2002.
  13. Swan Michael, Practical English Usage, Oxford University Press, 1995;
  14. Ştefan, Rodica, Vasilescu, Ruxandra, Macoci, Sanda, Beldea Elena,  Come Along – curs practic de limba engleză, Editura Fundaţia “România De Mâine”, Bucureşti, 2000; 
  15. Ştefan, Rodica, Pricope, Mihaela, Beldea, Elena, Go Ahead-English Course for Business Studies, Editura Fundaţiei “Romînia de Mâine”, Bucureşti, 2001.
  16. Thomson, J.A., Martinet, A.V., A Practical English Grammar,  Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1980;
  17. Văcărel, Iulian – colaboratori, Finanţe Publice, Editura Didactică şi Pedagogică, Bucureşti, 1992.
  18. Watchyn-Jones, Peter, Test your English Idioms, Penguin Group, 1990;
  19. * * *  Dictionary of Contemporary English, Longman, 1995;
  20. * * * The New International Webster’s Comprehensive Dictionary of The English Language, Trident Press International, 1996.

 

 

 

 

 



  VOCABULARY

1 to cater for – a satisface, a se adresa

2 clearing – compensare, cliring; lichidare

3 standing order – ordin de plată permanent

4 payee – beneficiarul unei plăţi

5 drawer – trăgător, persoană care trage o trată

6 to reconcile –a reconcilia, a face să concorde

  VOCABULARY

7 to purchase – a achiziţiona, a cumpăra

8 to gear – a grena, a cupla; a adapta

9 building societies – societăţi de credit imobiliar

10 saving and loans – cooperative de credit

11 installment – plată parţială; rată; tranşă

  VOCABULARY

12 mergers and acquisitions – fuziuni şi achiziţii (preluări)

13 floatations – lansări, emisiuni de titluri

14 leasing – închiriere cu opţiuni de cumpărare; locaţie - vânzare

15 premises – sediu, clădiri